A 2021 study from Colorado State University suggests that men's biology and speaking patterns make them more likely to spread viral particles, with implications for coronavirus transmission, which spreads through respiratory droplets.
The study found that males produced 62% more droplets than females, adults 62% more than minors, and singing 77% more than talking.
The study did note that after accounting for participants' voice volume and exhaled carbon dioxide, "age and sex differences were attenuated and no longer statistically significant." However, practically speaking, males appear to emit more droplets due to their larger lung capacity.
The study was inspired by a previous finding that singing and talking loudly emit more droplets than speaking and talking quietly, respectively.
Female voices tend to higher and breathier, giving the appearance of being quieter due to how the human ear perceives sound. However, it is unclear whether the female voice is actually quieter.